Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs (1962)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular psychometric tool used to assess personality preferences. It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs, based on the theories of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. The MBTI is designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.

Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs were inspired by Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types, which suggested that individuals have inherent preferences in the way they process information and interact with the world. They believed that understanding these preferences could help people gain insights into their strengths, motivations, and potential career paths.

The MBTI assesses personality preferences across four dichotomous dimensions, resulting in 16 possible personality types. The four dimensions are:

  • Extraversion (E) – Introversion (I): Determines whether individuals focus more on the external world of people and things (extraversion) or their internal world of thoughts and feelings (introversion).
  • Sensing (S) – Intuition (N): Reflects how individuals gather and process information. Sensing types rely on concrete information obtained through their senses, while intuitive types focus on patterns, possibilities, and the big picture.
  • Thinking (T) – Feeling (F): Describes how individuals make decisions. Thinking types prioritize objective analysis and logical reasoning, while feeling types consider personal values and the impact on others.
  • Judging (J) – Perceiving (P): Refers to how individuals approach the external world. Judging types prefer structure, organization, and closure, while perceiving types are more adaptable, spontaneous, and open-ended.

The combination of these four dimensions creates the 16 different MBTI personality types, such as ISTJ, ENFP, INTJ, and ESFJ, among others. Each type is associated with unique strengths, preferences, and potential career paths.

It’s important to note that the MBTI is a self-reported assessment and not a diagnostic tool. It is widely used in various contexts, including personal development, career counseling, team-building, and relationship counseling. However, its validity and reliability have been subjects of debate among psychologists and researchers, and it is often criticized for oversimplifying the complexity of human personality.