Scrum, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka (1986)

Scrum is an agile project management framework that was developed in 1986 by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka. Takeuchi and Nonaka introduced Scrum as a way to improve the product development process, particularly in the context of complex and rapidly changing environments.

Scrum is based on the idea of iterative and incremental development, where projects are divided into short, fixed-length iterations called “sprints.” Each sprint typically lasts two to four weeks, during which a cross-functional team works on delivering a potentially shippable increment of the product.

The key concepts and roles in Scrum include:

  • Product Owner: The Product Owner represents the voice of the customer and is responsible for defining and prioritizing the product backlog, which is a list of desired features, enhancements, and tasks. They work closely with stakeholders to ensure that the product backlog aligns with customer needs and business goals.
  • Scrum Master: The Scrum Master is responsible for facilitating the Scrum process and ensuring that the team adheres to Scrum principles and practices. They act as a coach and servant leader, helping to remove obstacles, promote collaboration, and optimize the team’s productivity.
  • Development Team: The Development Team consists of cross-functional individuals who collaborate to deliver the product increment. They are self-organizing and accountable for managing their work and delivering value during each sprint. The team members collectively determine how to best achieve the sprint goals.
  • Sprint: A sprint is a time-boxed iteration, typically lasting two to four weeks, during which the Development Team works to deliver a potentially shippable product increment. Sprints have a defined goal, and at the end of each sprint, a review and retrospective are held to evaluate progress, gather feedback, and make improvements.

Scrum emphasizes transparency, inspection, and adaptation throughout the development process. It encourages regular communication and collaboration among team members and promotes a flexible and iterative approach to product development. The Scrum framework provides a set of rules, artifacts, and ceremonies to support project management and enable the team to respond quickly to changing requirements and feedback.

Since its introduction, Scrum has gained significant popularity and has been widely adopted in various industries and organizations. It is particularly effective in software development, but its principles and practices can be applied to other complex projects as well. Scrum helps teams become more agile, adaptive, and customer-focused, leading to increased productivity, improved quality, and faster time-to-market for products and services.