Total Perceived Service Quality, Christian Grönroos (1984)

Christian Grönroos, in 1984, introduced the concept of Total Perceived Service Quality (TPSQ), which revolutionized the understanding and measurement of service quality in the field of marketing and customer experience management. Grönroos’s framework emphasizes that customers evaluate service quality based on their overall perception of the service encounter, rather than focusing solely on specific aspects or attributes.

The key components of Grönroos’s Total Perceived Service Quality framework include:

  • Service Encounter: The service encounter refers to the actual interaction between the customer and the service provider. It encompasses all touchpoints, including face-to-face interactions, digital channels, customer support, and any other direct or indirect communication. Grönroos argues that the quality of the service encounter greatly influences customers’ overall perception of service quality.
  • Technical Quality: Technical quality relates to the objective performance and capabilities of the service provider in delivering the service. It includes factors such as accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness of the service. While technical quality is important, Grönroos suggests that it alone does not determine customers’ perceived service quality.
  • Functional Quality: Functional quality refers to the subjective aspects of service delivery, such as responsiveness, empathy, communication, and problem-solving skills of the service provider. It focuses on how the service is delivered and the customer’s experience during the service encounter. Grönroos argues that functional quality plays a significant role in shaping customers’ perceptions of service quality.

Grönroos emphasizes that Total Perceived Service Quality is a result of the interaction between technical quality and functional quality during the service encounter. It is the customer’s holistic evaluation of the service experience that determines their perception of service quality.

To measure Total Perceived Service Quality, Grönroos suggests using customer feedback, surveys, and other research methods to capture customers’ overall satisfaction and perception of the service encounter. This approach enables organizations to identify areas of improvement, align their service delivery with customer expectations, and enhance the overall service experience.

Grönroos’s concept of Total Perceived Service Quality has had a significant impact on service marketing and management. It highlights the importance of understanding the customer’s perspective and the holistic nature of service quality evaluation. By focusing on the entire service encounter and delivering high technical and functional quality, organizations can enhance customer satisfaction, build customer loyalty, and differentiate themselves in the competitive marketplace.